About The Golden Isles: SEA ISLAND SPA AND FITNESS

Spa & Fitness at Sea Island


The pursuit of happiness.

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Sea Island is the world-class home to a Forbes Five-Star spa and a cutting edge fitness facility. That’s 65,000-square-feet of expert staff, therapists, consultants, traditional treatments, innovative technologies, fitness programs, state-of-the-art equipment, and customized therapies. Better mind, better body. And a happy, healthy you.

The Spa at Sea Island


Reconnect with friends or family while we help you focus on your needs, improve overall health, and provide stress relief. Every step of your Sea Island spa day is gracious, warm, friendly, and unique. We’re putting the fun back into spa. And we’re boosting your well-being and happiness while we’re at it.

The Salon at Sea Island


Put your best face forward. And fingers and toes. Hair and nail care for women, men, kids, and teens. Hair cuts and updos, color and makeup, manis and pedis. Come with a friend or a group. With your little one or the one you love. For the bride-to-be and her entourage. Essential services for any special occasion. And for making any occasion special.

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What moves you? Choose from dozens of group classes. Enjoy state-of-the-art equipment and yoga, Pilates, strength, and cardio studios. Work out on your own or under the helpful guidance of a personal trainer. Stay inside or take it to the water on a paddleboard or kayak. Then grab an energizing smoothie.

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Learn the art of fueling your body well. Nutrition and cooking classes with a nutritionist are the ingredients you need to assess your lifestyle and make manageable changes to enhance your energy.

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Skin, hair and nail care products, active wear, exercise wear, spa gifts, and more. Find brands such as Babor, La Bella Donna, Davines, Lululemon, and Ugg at The Spa and Salon at Sea Island.

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Personality Comparison for thunderl_LASH125

How You Compare to Personality Types

Find out how your personality type mingles with that of the others below.

Extraverted iNtuitive Feeling Judger (ENFJ)
“The Growth Teacher”
The Joys: These LoveTypes can bring some good things to the table to help each other. The analytical, precision-thinking Expert can quickly find the holes in the Growth Teacher’s projects and help improve them dramatically. The people-savvy Growth Teacher can show the Expert how to play the political and social game so they can fit in with the crowd and get what they need from others. Together, they enjoy an organized, schedule-focused lifestyle that focuses on maximum accomplishment in minimum time.

The Frustrations: Growth Teachers are intense, passionate, and cuddly–traits often lacking in the more cerebral and independent-minded Expert. The Expert is often puzzled as to why the Growth Teacher craves some much time together–always needing to talk and connect emotionally. Hasn’t the Growth Teacher heard that space and time alone is important for a relationship? Apparently not, because the Growth Teacher can quickly become irritated and upset when they feel the Expert is avoiding them and hiding out in their shell.

Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiver (ENFP)
“The Social Philosopher”
The Joys: As a natural critic and editor, the Expert is the perfect complement to the super creative Social Philosopher. The Social Philosopher appreciates the Expert’s detailed feedback that can make any creative project a winner, and the Expert gets their kicks out of doing what they’re best at: finding the flaws in something and improving it to its highest potential. For these two, life is a never-ending vessel of improvement and growth, as both partners work to help each other reach a higher level of excellence.

The Frustrations: Emotion, emotion, where art thou? cries the sentimental and romantic Social Philosopher after spending time with the logically minded Expert. The Social Philosopher usually wants more tenderness and emotional attention from the Expert, but the Expert wonders why the Social Philosopher needs so much emotional reassurance. “Didn’t your mommy breast feed you enough?” may be one of the tack-sharp, witty retorts uttered by the Expert, the kind of remark the sensitive Social Philosopher doesn’t quite appreciate.

Extraverted iNtuitive Thinking Judger (ENTJ)
“The General”
The Joys: Both of these strong minded individuals have one thing on their mind: Success. Not just moderate or average success, but society-changing, empire building, big moneymaking success. They share the vision and the drive to create something large and powerful in their lives–manifesting the fruits of a unique and prosperous lifestyle.

The Frustrations: Two strong-minded people like these can easily butt heads, and often do. The highly talkative General will try to verbally stomp on the Expert at times, but the Expert is canny enough to give as well as they get. Debates can get fierce and ugly when these two have opposing mindsets and neither is willing to budge. It doesn’t matter what they’re arguing about–small or big–if there’s a difference of opinion among these two, there’s going to be a tug of war. No doubt.

Extraverted iNtuitive Thinking Perceiver (ENTP)
“The Innovator”
The Joys: As Knowledge Seekers, this pair enjoys mental and educational activities that can broaden their horizons. Another advantage of this coupling is that the structured Expert can help the freewheeling Innovator improve their organizational skills, while the more adaptable, easy-going Innovator can help the Expert mellow out once in a while. Also, the Innovator can encourage the usually cautious Expert to take more intelligent risks that can pay off big in the long run.

The Frustrations: Too much risk, especially with money, is not a good thing, says the Expert. From the Innovator’s perspective, however, money invested in the right project is never a risk; it’s money well spent. As a result, the free-spending Innovator is likely to rankle the penny counting Expert, who is terrified that their life savings will be blown on their partner’s latest half-assed venture. “Don’t worry,” replies the confident Innovator. “It’s money in the bank. Stop sweating, and we’ll start collecting.”

Extroverted Sensing Feeling Judger (ESFJ)
“The Dutiful Host”
The Joys: Dealing with large groups of people is always a challenge for Experts, but not when they have a Dutiful Host in their lives. The Dutiful Host relishes the thought of planning large, lavish, and fun-filled parties and social events, entertaining as many people as possible–including their low-key Expert–so that everyone has a rip-roaring good time. And while the Dutiful Host is planning and entertaining away, they’re wondering what great invention, idea, or project their brainy Expert is going to come up with next.

The Frustrations: The Dutiful Host is one of the most emotionally communicative of the LoveTypes, and they absolutely demand emotional attention from their mates. This could be a problem for the more detached, inward Expert, who often just wants to be left along so they can solve another problem or create another system. That attitude just doesn’t cut it for the tender and verbally expressive Dutiful Host–they want someone they can talk to now–someone they feel is equally invested in a true love partnership.

Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiver (ESFP)
“The Performer”
The Joys: Experts are often attracted to their exact opposite, the flamboyant, charismatic Performer, someone who can bring excitement and social fun into their more reclusive, inward life. And the Performer is often attracted to the quiet, intellectual reserve of the Experts, a perfect contrast to the high-wheeling, energetic social life they normally lead. By being a catalyst and revelation to each other, this couple encounters things they would never have experienced alone.

The Frustrations: As exact opposites, trouble can loom in every corner of their relationship. When the Expert is tired and exhausted after talking to people at work, the Performer wants to go out to the new theatre opening. When the Expert wants to talk about a novel, imagination-stretching topic, the Performer wants to dance salsa and take in a show. And when the Performer wants to declare their love from the top of all the mountain tops, the Expert says, “Not here, let’s think about this first and write down our thoughts about each other.”

Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judger (ESTJ)
“The Traditionalist”
The Joys: Building a long-term relationship and eventually, a prosperous and secure family life, are important priorities for this LoveType combination. As structured and organized individuals, they prefer a lifestyle that is devoid of surprises and unexpected twists. They derive pleasure from knowing what they’re going to be doing in advance so they can be prepared.

The Frustrations: The talkative Traditionalist can appear bossy to the independence-loving Expert. Experts hate being told what to do, but the verbally communicative Traditionalist usually has a list of things they want done (and the exact way they want it done). They create this list because they value efficiency, and they are often perplexed as to why the Expert always wants to cut corners and do things differently–why can’t they just follow the program?

Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiver (ESTP)
“The Wheeler-Dealer”
The Joys: As logical individuals, this pair can avoid conflicts because they can detach themselves from an emotional situation and look at the logical side of the equation. They also admire each other’s qualities: The Wheeler Dealer’s exceptionally persuasive sales ability is intriguing to the more restrained Expert, while the Wheeler Dealer is impressed by the Expert’s ability to go within and come up with amazing ideas that can make an impact.

The Frustrations: To the Expert, the Wheeler-Dealer can appear to be a flaky, superficial person who has no real substance or depth. To the Wheeler-Dealer, the Expert can appear to be a self-preoccupied stubborn ass who doesn’t want to see anything outside their myopic little world. “Go ahead and stay home with your dumb ideas; I’m going to the club,” The Wheeler-Dealer might yell on a particularly bad night. “No problem,” retorts the smug Expert. “At least I don’t have to worry about venereal disease.”

Introverted iNtuitive Feeling Judger (INFJ)
“The Mystic Writer”
The Joys: When these two come together, they’re delighted to meet an intellectual equal. Living through their thoughts, ideas, and imagination, this couple can create a very special mental bond that allows them to discuss and analyze the rare and special ideas that very few people are capable of understanding. Reading, chess or board games, video games, and movies are mentally stimulating activities that appeal to this introspective, stay-at-home couple.

The Frustrations: Mystic Writers can get peeved at what they feel is the emotional obliviousness of their Expert. To the Mystic writer, the Expert may seem remote, detached, and even cold. From the Expert’s perspective, however, it’s the Mystic Writer who has the problem: “Why do they need so much emotional reassurance? I told them I loved them at the beginning of the relationship; if anything changes, I’ll let them know.”

Introverted iNtuitive Feeling Perceiver (INFP)
“The Idealistic Philosopher”
The Joys: These two love to converse deeply, on almost any topic imaginable. Both are often well-educated, articulate, and intellectual individuals who feel driven to learn, grow, and continually improve themselves and their relationship. When they first meet, they often feel immediately comfortable with each other on an intellectual level; both have minds that are endlessly inquisitive, curious, and active. They don’t need a lot of people around to enjoy themselves either; scintillating conversation, a bottle of wine, and the two of them will do.

The Frustrations: Arguments can be a killer for this couple. The Expert’s natural argumentative mindset loves to pick things apart logically and enjoys a rousing debate and argument, just for it’s own intellectual sake. This can seem fun at first for the inquisitive Idealistic Philosopher but can quickly become personal and hurtful because of their sensitive nature. Also, the free-wheeling, independent loving Idealistic Philosopher is likely to be put off by the structured Expert’s bossy demands and instructions–the Expert likes to create structures and schemes and will get irritated at the Idealistic Philosopher’s resistance and inability to follow simple schedules and plans.

Introverted iNtuitive Thinking Judger (INTJ)
“The Expert”
The Joys: These expert debaters and unconventional thinkers love to spice up a conversation with witty repartee and creative wordplay. As intellectual equals, they’re up for learning just about anything, and using their newfound wisdom to solve any conceivable problem or puzzle. This pair is often highly educated, well-read, and successful financially, as these born savers are capable of putting plenty away for their future projects or to tide them over in an emergency.

The Frustrations: Their mutual stubbornness could hamper their relationship. Whether it’s a big decision like whether to have kids or a small one like what movie to see, their innate competitive and argumentative nature can sometimes get in the way of agreeing on things and moving the relationship forward. Fortunately, both are also interested in improving and growing, so if they’re able to learn the art of compromise, they can work out their differences and keep building a successful relationship.

Introverted iNtuitive Thinking Perceiver (INTP)
“The Scholar”
The Joys: There is an intellectually fun and competitive edge to this pair. They enjoy showing off their dazzling minds and intellects to each other and to a few close, like-minded friends. They often share an interest in brain-stimulating games like chess, computer and video games, and thought-provoking books and movies. The more structured Expert is able to help the Scholar order his thoughts and activities, while the flexible, go-with-the flow Scholar can help the sometimes uptight Expert relax and unwind when everything doesn’t go according to plan.

The Frustrations: This couple tends to fight over order, time, and organization. The more spontaneous, seat-of-the pants Scholar likely has books and papers everywhere, which tends to annoy the hell out of the usually better-organized Expert. In the meantime, the Scholar wishes the Expert would just chill and stop being so obsessed with controlling everything all the time. When it comes to going places, the Scholar can be counted on to be on Scholar time (which usually means late), while the Expert can get antsy when their sense of timeliness and schedules is being violated by their clock-oblivious Scholar.

Introverted Sensing Feeling Judger (ISFJ)
“The Caretaker”
The Joys: These two like to keep things neat and orderly in their home and work lives. They enjoy structure, stability, and predictability their schedules and day-to-day life. As Introverts, they prefer a quieter, private home-based lifestyle that affords them a relaxed, pleasant environment with minimal noise and distractions. Sure, a few friends can cover over once in a while, but not too many and not too often.

The Frustrations: The Caretaker will often complain about the emotional distance of the the Expert: “Why don’t they show more verbal and physical affection? Why does an ‘I love you’ cost you that much?” “It isn’t necessary to say the words all the time,” replies the logically-minded Expert. “I love you in my own way; why should I have to tell you all the time? You’re too needy and emotional. Be more logical like me.”

Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiver (ISFP)
“The Gentle Artist”
The Joys: The quietly sensitive Gentle artist can teach the logical Expert about the value of tender affection and gentle expressions of love. In return, the Gentle Artist can pick up a more logical mindset from the Expert and learn how to develop a thicker skin so other people and life events don’t destroy them so easily. As quieter, private people, they both value their quiet time and enjoy spending a lot of time at home or in quiet settings.

The Frustrations: The Gentle Artist wants emotional sharing and connection; the Expert values intellectual stimulation. Although they may try to give each other what they want, often times both come away unsatisfied–the Gentle Artist doesn’t get the romance and emotions they need, and the Expert is not intellectually stimulated enough by the Gentle Artist. At the same time, the Expert feels like they’re walking on eggshells–every little thing they say can hurt the fragile Gentle Artist–while the Gentle Artist complains that the Expert is often insensitive and critical.

Introverted Sensing Thinking Judger (ISTJ)
“The Administrator”
The Joys: Saving and investing are one of the great joys for this couple. Seeing their money and possessions grow, leaving behind a financial legacy for their children, and enjoying a high-quality, low worry retirement are things this couple is frequently planning and looking forward to. Another plus: As logical thinkers, they don’t take arguments too personally. Instead of getting hurt easily by random comments, they can avoid the type of emotional blowups that afflict other couples.

The Frustrations: “You just don’t get my ideas,” complains the frustrated Expert after they’ve tried to explain their brilliant breakthroughs to the conventional-thinking Administrator for the umpteenth time. “I’m just at a much higher level of thought.” “Higher is right,” replies the Administrator. “Why don’t you come down out of those clouds and talk to me about reality–things we have to do around the house and for us. I don’t care about your invention that’s going to change the world in 10 years; when are you going to change our daughter’s diaper? “

Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiver (ISTP)
“The Craftsperson”
The Joys: The adventuresome, nature-exploring Craftsperson can get the Expert out of their intellectual shell long enough to enjoy the pleasures of pure raw action and adrenaline: river rafting, camping, hiking, skiing, canoeing, jet skiing, and so on. And the Craftsperson can get a dose of mental stimulation and learn how to value the discussion of higher ideas. As Introverts, both also enjoy quiet times together and with a few close friends.

The Frustrations: The organized Expert will usually have little patience for the way the messy, scattered Craftsperson leaves tools, instruments, and projects lying all over the house. And the Craftsperson will get annoyed at the Expert’s insistence on excessive orderliness and sticking to structure at the expense of flexibility and spontaneity. The Craftsperson doesn’t like it when the Expert acts elitist and makes fun of the Craftsperson’s prized outdoor projects and hands-on activities because they’re blue collar. “Just because it’s not mental or intellectual doesn’t mean it’s not valuable,” replies the miffed Craftsperson.

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For other posts dealing with Bible contradictions see our Collection of Posts Responding to Bible Contradictions. For today’s post will tackle the question the Skeptic Annotated Bible asked: Did Zedekiah’s eyes behold the king of Babylon? Here are the two answers which the skeptic believes shows a Bible contradiction: Yes, his eyes beheld the king of Babylon. “You […]

via Bible Contradiction? Did Zedekiah’s eyes behold the king of Babylon? — The Domain for Truth

 

The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies which became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.

The Congress met from 1774 to 1789 in three incarnations. The first call for a convention was made over issues of the blockade and the Intolerable Acts penalizing the Province of Massachusetts, which in 1774 enabled Benjamin Franklin to convince the colonies to form a representative body. Much of what we know today comes from the yearly log books printed by the Continental Congress called “Resolutions, Acts and Orders of Congress” which gives a day to day description of the debates and issues.

Although the delegates were divided early on as to whether to break from Crown rule, the second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776, passed a resolution asserting independence, with no opposing vote recorded. The Declaration of Independence was issued two days later declaring themselves a new nation: the United States of America. It established a Continental Army, giving command to one of its members, George Washington of Virginia. It waged war with Great Britain, made a militia treaty with France, and funded the war effort with loans and paper money.

The third Continental Congress was the Congress of the Confederation, under the Articles of Confederation.

Contents

First Continental Congress, 1774

The First Continental Congress met briefly in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from September 5 to October 26, 1774. It consisted of fifty-six delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that were to become the United States of America. The delegates, who included George Washington (then a colonel of the Virginia Colony‘s volunteers), Patrick Henry, and John Adams, were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay Colony, and Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Province of Pennsylvania.[1] Peyton Randolph of Virginia was its president.

Benjamin Franklin had put forth the idea of such a meeting the year before, but he was unable to convince the colonies of its necessity until the 1773 British blockade at the port of Boston in response to the Boston Tea Party. All of the colonies sent delegates except the newest and most southerly one, the Province of Georgia – which needed the British Army‘s protection in order to contend with attacks from several Native American tribes. Most of the delegates were not yet ready to break away from Great Britain, but they wanted the King and Parliament to act in what they considered a fairer manner.

Convened in response to the Intolerable Acts passed by Parliament in 1774, the delegates organized an economic boycott of Great Britain in protest and petitioned the King for a redress of grievances. The colonies were united in their effort to demonstrate to the mother country their authority by virtue of their common causes and their unity; but their ultimate objectives were not consistent. The Pennsylvania and New York provinces had sent with their delegates firm instructions to pursue a resolution with Great Britain. While the other colonies all held the idea of colonial rights as paramount, they were split between those who sought legislative equality with Britain and those who instead favored independence and a break from the Crown and its excesses.

On October 26, 1774, the First Continental Congress adjourned; but it agreed to reconvene in May 1775, if Parliament still had not addressed their grievances.

Second Continental Congress, 1775–1781

In London, Parliament debated the merits of meeting the demands made by the colonies; however, it took no official notice of Congress’s petitions and addresses. On November 30, 1774, King George III opened Parliament with a speech condemning Massachusetts and the Suffolk Resolves. At that point it became clear that the Continental Congress would have to convene once again.[2]

The Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, at Philadelphia’s State House, passing the resolution for independence the following year on July 2, 1776, and publicly asserting the decision two days later with the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia drafted the declaration, and John Adams was a leader in the debates in favor of its adoption. John Hancock of Massachusetts was the president during those debates. To govern during the American Revolutionary War, the Second Continental Congress continued, meeting at various locations, until it became the Congress of the Confederation when the Articles of Confederation were ratified on March 1, 1781.

Confederation Congress, 1781–1789

The newly founded country of the United States next had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament/13 colonies government that it was in rebellion against. After much debate, the Americans adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government which was made up of a one-house legislature known as the Congress of the Confederation. It met from 1781 to 1789.[3] The Confederation Congress helped guide the United States through the final stages of the Revolutionary War, but during peacetime, the Continental Congress steeply declined in importance.

During peacetime, there were two important, long-lasting acts of the Confederation Congress:[4]

  1. The passage of the Northwest Ordinance in 1787. This ordinance accepted the abolition of all claims to the land west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River by the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, and the ordinance established Federal control over all of this land in the Northwest Territory—with the goal that several new states should be created there. In the course of time, this land was divided over the course of many decades into Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.
  2. After years of frustration, an agreement was reached in 1786 at the Annapolis Convention to call another convention in May 1787 in Philadelphia with the mission of writing and proposing a number of amendments to the Articles of Confederation in order to improve the form of government. The report was sent to the Confederation Congress and the State. The result was the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 which was authorized by all the States thus fulfilling the unanimous requirement of the Articles of Confederation to allow changes to the Articles.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the Confederation Congress had little power to compel the individual states to comply with any of its decisions. More and more prospective delegates elected to the Confederation Congress declined to serve in it. The leading men in each State preferred to serve in the state governments, and thus the Continental Congress had frequent difficulties in establishing a quorum. When the Articles of Confederation were superseded by the Constitution of the United States, the Confederation Congress was superseded by the United States Congress.

The Confederation Congress finally set up a suitable administrative structure for the Federal government. It put into operation a departmental system, with ministers of finance, of war, and of foreign affairs. Robert Morris was selected as the new Superintendent of Finance, and then Morris used some ingenuity and initiative—along with a loan from the French Government—to deal with his empty treasury and also runaway inflation, for a number of years, in the supply of paper money.

As the ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin not only secured the “bridge loan” for the national budget, but he also persuaded France to send an army of about 6,000 soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to America—and also to dispatch a large squadron of French warships under Comte de Grasse to the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina. These French warships proved to be decisive at the Battle of Yorktown along the coast of Virginia by preventing Lord Cornwallis‘s British troops from receiving supplies, reinforcements, or evacuation via the James River and Hampton Roads, Virginia.[5]

Robert Morris, the Minister of Finance, persuaded Congress to charter the Bank of North America on Dec. 31, 1781. Although a private bank, the Federal Government acquired partial ownership with money lent by France. The Bank of North America played a major role in financing the war against Great Britain. The combined armies of George Washington and Nathanael Greene, with the help of the French Army and Navy, defeated the British in the Battle of Yorktown during October 1781. Lord Cornwallis was forced to sue for peace and to surrender his entire army to General Washington. During 1783, the Americans secured the official recognition of the independence of the United States from the United Kingdom via negotiations with British diplomats in Paris, France. These negotiations culminated with the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, and this treaty was soon ratified by the British Parliament.[3]

Organization

The delegates to the Continental Congress had extensive experience in deliberative bodies before coming to Congress, with “a cumulative total of nearly 500 years of experience in their colonial legislatures, and fully a dozen of them had served as Speakers of the houses of their legislatures.”[6] Both the Parliament of Great Britain and many of their own Colonial assemblies had powerful Speakers of the House and standing committees with strong chairmen, with executive power held by the British Monarch or the colonial Governor. However, the organization of the Continental Congress was based less on the British Parliament or on local state assemblies than on the nine-colony Stamp Act Congress. Nine of the 56 delegates who attended the First Congress in 1774 had previously attended the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. These were some of the most respected of the delegates, and they influenced the direction of the organization from its opening day, when decisions were made on organization and procedures that lasted over fourteen years until the Congress was adjourned on March 2, 1788.

The delegates chose a presiding President of the Continental Congress to monitor the debate, maintain order, and make sure journals were kept and documents and letters were published and delivered. Otherwise, the President had little power, and he was largely a figurehead used to meet visiting dignitaries: the office was “more honorable than powerful”.[7] The job was not much sought after or retained for long: there were 16 Presidents in 14 years.

The turnover of delegates was enormously high as well, with an average year-to-year churn rate of 37% by one calculation,[8] and 39% by session-to-session.[9] Of the 343 serving delegates, only 55% (187 delegates) spent 12 or more months in Philadelphia at the Congress.[10] Only 25 of the delegates served longer than 35 months.[11] This high rate of turnover or churn was not just a characteristic; it was made into a deliberate policy of term limits. In the Confederation phase of the Congress “no delegate was permitted to serve more than three years in any six”.[12] Attendance was variable: while in session, between 54 and 22 delegates were in attendance at any one time, with an average of only 35.5 members attending between 1774 and 1788.[13]

Between 1775 and 1781 they created a few standing committees to handle war related activities, such as the committee of secret correspondence, the treasury board, the board of war and ordnance, and the navy board. However, most of their work was done in small “ad hoc” committees consisting of members nominated from the floor. The delegate with the most votes became the chair of the committee. Committees typically had 3 to 5 members: roughly 77% of the committees had only 3 members.[14] They created 3,294 committees[15] over the 14.5 year calendar life of the congress – nearly 19 committees a month.

At the opening of the Congress, when one delegate suggested they appoint a committee on rules and voting, the motion was rejected, as “every Gent. was acquainted” with the British House of Commons usage, and such a committee would be a “waste of time.”[16] They did write up rules of debate that guaranteed equal rights to debate and open access to the floor for each delegate. Voting was by the “unit rule”: each state cast a single vote. Votes were first taken within each state delegation. The majority determined vote was considered the vote of the state on a motion: in cases of a tie the vote for the state was not counted.

The Continental Congress took on powers normally held by the British monarch and his council, such as the conduct of foreign and military affairs. However, the right to tax and regulate trade was reserved for the states, not the Congress. They had no formal way to enforce their motions on the state governments. Delegates did not report directly to the President, but to their home state assemblies: its organizational structure has been described as “an extreme form of matrix management“.[17] It ran with very low overhead of 4 men for the 56 delegates, having only Secretary Charles Thomson as its operating officer for the whole period from 1774 to 1789, supported by a scribe, a doorman, and a messenger. They also appointed initially one, and later two, Congressional Chaplains.

Legacy

There is a long running debate on how effective the Congress was as an organization.[18] The first critic may have been General George Washington. In an address to his officers, at Newburgh, New York, on March 15, 1783, responding to complaints that Congress had not funded their pay and pensions, he stated that he believed that Congress will do the army “complete justice” and eventually pay the soldiers. “But, like all other large Bodies, where there is a variety of different Interests to reconcile, their deliberations are slow.”

In addition to their slowness, the lack of coercive power in the Continental Congress was harshly criticized by James Madison when arguing for the need of a Federal Constitution. His comment in Vices of the Political System of April 1787 set the conventional wisdom on the historical legacy of the institution for centuries to come:

A sanction is essential to the idea of law, as coercion is to that of Government. The federal system being destitute of both, wants the great vital principles of a Political Cons[ti]tution. Under the form of such a Constitution, it is in fact nothing more than a treaty of amity of commerce and of alliance, between so many independent and Sovereign States. From what cause could so fatal an omission have happened in the Articles of Confederation? From a mistaken confidence that the justice, the good faith, the honor, the sound policy, of the several legislative assemblies would render superfluous any appeal to the ordinary motives by which the laws secure the obedience of individuals: a confidence which does honor to the enthusiastic virtue of the compilers, as much as the inexperience of the crisis apologizes for their errors.

— James Madison, Vices of the Political System

Many commentators take for granted that the leaderless, weak, slow, and small-committee driven, Continental Congress was a failure, largely because after the end of the war the Articles of Confederation no longer suited the needs of a peacetime nation, and the Congress itself, following Madison’s recommendations, called for its revision and replacement. Some also suggest that the Congress was inhibited by the formation of contentious partisan alignments based on regional differences.[19] Others claim that Congress was less ideological than event driven.[20][21] Others note that the Congress was successful in that the American people “came to accept Congress as their legitimate institution of Government”,[22] but the “rather poor governmental record” [23] of the Congress forced the constitutional convention of 1787.

Political scientists Calvin Jillson and Rick Wilson in the 1980s accepted the conventional interpretation on the weakness of the Congress due to the lack of coercive power. They explored the role of leadership, or rather the lack of it, in the Continental Congress. Going beyond even Madison’s harsh critique, they used the “analytical stance of what has come to be called the new institutionalism[24] to demonstrate that “the norms, rules, and institutional structures of the Continental Congress” were equally to blame “for the institution’s eventual failure”, and that the “institutional structure worked against, rather than with, the delegates in tackling the crucial issues of the day.”[25]

The Historian Richard P. McCormick rendered a more nuanced judgment. He suggested that Madison’s “extreme judgment” on the Congress was “motivated no doubt by Madison’s overriding desire to create a new central government that would be empowered veto the acts of state legislatures,”[26] but that it fails “to take any notice of the fact that while the authority of the Confederation Congress was ambiguous, it was not a nullity”.[27]

Benjamin Irvin in his social and cultural history of the Continental Congress, praised “the invented traditions by which Congress endeavored to fortify the resistance movement and to make meaning of American independence.” [28] But he noted that after the war’s end, “Rather than passively adopting the Congress’s creations, the American people embraced, rejected, reworked, ridiculed, or simply ignored them as they saw fit.”[29]

An organizational culture analysis of the Continental Congress by Neil Olsen, looking for the values, norms, and underlying assumptions that drive an organization’s decisions, noted that “the leaderless Continental Congress outperformed not only the modern congress run by powerful partisan hierarchies, but modern government and corporate entities, for all their coercive power and vaunted skills as ‘leaders’.”[30] Looking at their the mission as defined by state resolutions and petitions entered into the Congressional Journal on its first day,[31] it found that on the common issues of the relief of Boston, securing Colonial rights, eventually restoring harmonious relations with Great Britain, and repealing taxes, they overachieved their mission goals, defeated the largest army and navy in the world, and created two new types of republic.[32] Olsen suggests that the Congress, if slow, when judged by its many achievements – not the least being recognizing its flaws, then replacing and terminating itself – was a success.

Timeline

1774
1775
1776
1777
  • February 27: Congress adjourns to return to Philadelphia
  • March 4: Congress reconvenes at Philadelphia’s State House
  • June 14: Congress adopts the flag of the 13 United States
  • September 18: Congress adjourns in order to move to Lancaster, Pennsylvania
  • September 27: Congress convenes for one day in Lancaster, at the Court House
  • September 30: Congress reconvenes at York, Pennsylvania at the Court House
  • November 15: Congress passes the Articles of Confederation and sends it to the states for ratification
1778
  • June 27: Congress adjourns to return to Philadelphia
  • July 2: Congress reconvenes in Philadelphia, first at College Hall, then at the State House
1780
1781
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
  • July 2: New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the US Constitution, thereby allowing for the creation of the new government
  • July 8: Continental Congress puts the new Constitution into effect by announcing the dates for the elections and the assembly of the new Congress
  • October 10: The last session during which the Continental Congress succeeded in achieving a quorum. The Continental Congress passes its last act on this date[33]
1789

See also

References

 

  • Rakove, Jack N. (1979). The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. pp. 42–62.
  • Rakove, Beginning pp 45–49
  • “Confederation Congress”. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  • Rakove, Beginnings, pp 133–330
  • Joseph J. Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington (2004) p 131
  • Jillson, Calvin, and Wilson, Rick, Congressional dynamics: structure, coordination, and choice in the first American Congress, 1774–1789, Stanford University Press, 1994, p. 5
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 76
  • Olsen, Neil, Pursuing Happiness: the Organizational Culture of the Continental Congress, Nonagram Publications, 2013, pp. 114–114
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 156
  • Olsen, p. 114
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 157
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 3
  • Olsen, p. 112
  • Olsen, p. 57
  • Jillian and Wilson, p. 91
  • Burnett, Edmund Cody, Letters of Members of the Continental Congress, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1921, Volume1, p. 9
  • Olsen, p. 71
  • Laver, Henry S., “Continental Congress”, Reader’s Guide to American History, editor Peter J. Parish, Routledge, 2013, pp. 178–179
  • Henderson, James, Party Politics in the Continental Congress, McGraw Hill, 1974
  • Rakove, Jack N. The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress, Knopf, 1979
  • Ammerman, David L., In the Common Cause: American Response to the Coercive Acts of 1774, University Press of Virginia, 1974
  • Marston, Jerrilyn Green, King and Congress: The Transfer of Political Legitimacy, 1774–1776
  • Laver, p. 178
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 1
  • Jillson and Wilson, p. 4
  • McCormick, Richard P., “Ambiguous Authority: The Ordinances of the Confederation Congress, 1781–1789”, The American Journal of Legal History, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Oct., 1997), pp. 411–439, p. 438
  • McCormick, p. 438
  • Irvin, Benjamin H., Clothed in Robes of Sovereignty : The Continental Congress and the People Out of Doors, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 5
  • Irvin, p. 28
  • Olsen, p. 54
  • U.S. Congress, Journals of the Continental Congress, Government Printing Office, 1904, Volume, 1, pp. 13–24
  • Olsen, p. 278
  • Taylor, Hannis. The Origin and Growth of the American Constitution, page 268 (1911).

 

  1. Burnett, Continental Congress, 726.

Further reading

  • Burnett, Edward Cody (1941). The Continental Congress. New York: Norton.
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Richard A. Ryerson, eds. The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 vol. 2006) 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics
  • Henderson, H. James (1974). Party Politics in the Continental Congress. New York: McGraw–Hill. ISBN 0-07-028143-2.
  • Horgan, Lucille E. Forged in War: The Continental Congress and the Origin of Military Supply and Acquisition Policy (2002)
  • Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of The Continental Congress (two volumes, 2015)
  • Irvin, Benjamin H. Clothed in Robes of Sovereignty: The Continental Congress and the People Out of Doors (Oxford University Press; 2011) 378 pages; analyzes the ritual and material culture used by the Continental Congress to assert its legitimacy and rally a wary public.
  • Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781 (1959) excerpt and text search
  • Jillson, Calvin, and Wilson, Rick, Congressional dynamics: structure, coordination, and choice in the first American Congress, 1774–1789, Stanford University Press, 1994
  • Olsen, Neil, Pursuing Happiness: the Organizational Culture of the Continental Congress, Nonagram Publications, 2013
  • Rakove, Jack N. (1979). The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-8018-2864-3.
  • Resch, John P., ed. Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 1 (2005), articles by scholars

Primary sources

  • Smith, Paul H., ed. Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789. 26 volumes. Washington: Library of Congress, 1976–1998.

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